Lin, Yuan
Title: Assessing percolation threshold based on high-order non- backtracking matrices
Abstract: Percolation threshold of a network is the critical value such that when nodes or edges are randomly selected with probability below the value, the network is fragmented but when the probability is above the value, a giant component connecting a large portion of the network would emerge. Assessing the percolation threshold of networks has wide applications in network reliability, information spread, epidemic control, etc. The theoretical approach so far to assess the percolation threshold is mainly based on spectral radius of adjacency matrix or non-backtracking matrix, which is limited to dense graphs or locally treelike graphs, and is less effective for sparse networks with non-negligible amount of triangles and loops. In this paper, we study high-order non-backtracking matrices and their application to assessing percolation threshold. We first define high-order non-backtracking matrices and study the properties of their spectral radii. Then we focus on the 2nd-order non-backtracking matrix and demonstrate analytically that the reciprocal of its spectral radius gives a tighter lower bound than those of adjacency and standard non-backtracking matrices. We further build a smaller size matrix with the same largest eigenvalue as the 2nd- order non-backtracking matrix to improve computation efficiency. Finally, we use both synthetic networks and 42 real networks to illustrate that the use of the 2nd-order non- backtracking matrix does give better lower bound for assessing percolation threshold than adjacency and standard non-backtracking matrices.